With regard to public incentives and their impact on SME innovativeness, a strong positive relationship has been revealed in both cases concurrently. Our finding is in step with findings of several other studies which empirically found a positive link between public support and firm innovativeness (Keizer, 2002, Liqin, 2010). Well-understanding their own disadvantageous features like their weakness in terms of financing, R&D, training and external contacts (Silvia, 2008) seems, innovative SMEs seek for any possible public support which comes in favorable terms and conditions to realize their innovations. The innovative strategy of SMEs has to be linked to that of local government agencies to provide targeted funding for innovation-based improvements (McRodney, 2004). This finding increases importance of availability of public supports.
Characteristics of Small and Medium Enterprise Innovativeness: Cases of Uzbekistan and China
1 Ahunjonov Umidjon, 2 Hu Shuhua, 3 Bandula Jayathilake, 4 Mu Renyan
Abstract: In this study, we aim at investigating factors significantly affecting innovation behavior of SMEs in developing country context. To realize the research objective, a thorough literature view on SME innovativeness has been realized and initial model for the study has been constructed. Data collected by self-administered questionnaire from SME CEOs and high level managers of Uzbekistan and China sample SMEs has been analyzed by Multivariate Logistic Model to make inference about significant determinants of SME innovativeness. The findings of the study suggest that CEOs with higher education, their innovation goal-oriented determination, and competition pressure from home market and abroad due to high export orientation of the SME and government incentives for innovations are being main forces making SMEs realize innovations. Internally, innovative SMEs are being led by CEOs with higher education degree and who well fits the great importance of innovations in their company strategy. medium enterprises
Service Fabric Design
The model used for the Medium Enterprise Design Profile service fabric is based around the desire to represent as many medium enterprise environments as possible. To do that a modular design is used, represented by sites and buildings of varying sizes (see Figure 1-2). The sites are made up of one or more building, depending on the site size profile; buildings are also sized with the determining factor being the number of users or connections to the network in that building as well as physical size. When representing a working room, an average size of 35 users per work area is used. Additionally, it is expected that half of all network can be accessed via wireless. This approach allows the network architect to essentially build their own medium enterprise environment by mixing the different site and building profiles provided.
Main and Large Site Design
The main and large site designs are meant to represent significantly sized sites containing the largest user populations. The profile of the main/large site is made up of six buildings, the buildings range in size from large to extra small. The buildings will connect back to the resilient core via multiple 10Gb Ethernet links. The core will also connect to a serverfarm design and service block. The large site will connect to the main site via a 1Gb Metro Ethernet link. The main site and large site are almost identical, with the exception that the main site is connected to outside entities such as the Internet using the Internet edge components, and will also have all other sites within the enterprise connecting to it.
Medium Site Design
The medium site design is targeted at enterprise sites that have approximately 3 buildings ranging in size from medium to small. The buildings will connect to the medium site core via multiple 10Gb links, and the core will also connect to a small serverfarm and service block. The medium site is connected to the main site via a 100mb Metro Ethernet link. This link interconnects the medium site to the other sites as well as external networks such as the Internet.
Small Site Design
The small site profile represents a site made up of just one building; in this case, the core and distribution networks are collapsed into one. The small site is connected to the main site via a fractional DS3 with a 20mb bandwidth rating. This link interconnects the small site to the other sites as well as external networks such as the Internet.
There are four building profiles: large, medium, small, and extra small. All buildings have access switches that connect users. The buildings also have distribution switches that connect the access switches together as well as connect the building itself to the core network.
Large Building Design
The large building is designed for 1600 Ethernet access ports ranging in bandwidth from 100mb to 1Gb. The ports are distributed over four different floors, each floor having 400 access ports. There are 80 wireless access points using the IEEE 802.1 ABGN standards, there are 20 access points per floor; additionally, there are 6 outdoor mesh access points to cover the outdoor skirt of the building. The large building designed for 160 phones.
Medium Building Design
The medium building was designed for 800 Ethernet access ports ranging in bandwidth from 100mb to 1Gb. The ports are distributed over two different floors, each floor having 400 access ports. There are 40 wireless access points using the IEEE 802.11 ABGN standards, there are 20 access points per floor; additionally, there are four outdoor mesh access points to cover the outdoor skirt of the building. The medium building is made up of designed for 80 phones.
Small Building Design
The small building is designed for 200 Ethernet access ports ranging in bandwidth from 100mb to 1Gb. The ports are all located on one floor. There are 10 wireless access points using the IEEE 802.1 ABGN standards; additionally, there are 2 outdoor mesh access points to cover the outdoor skirt of the building. The small building is designed for 30 phones.
Extra Small Building Design
The extra small building is designed for 48 100mb Ethernet access ports. The ports are all located on one floor. There are 3 wireless access points using the IEEE 802.1 ABGN standards; additionally, there is 1 outdoor mesh access point to cover the outdoor skirt of the building. The extra small building designed for up of 10 phones.
The devices that connect to the Medium Enterprise Design Profile network include phones, cameras, displays, laptops, desktops, mobile phones, and personal devices (iPod, MP3, etc). Half of all the devices are expected to connect to the network using 802.11 ABGN wireless access.
LAN/WAN Design Considerations
The service fabric LAN/WAN is made up of routers and switches deployed in a three-tier hierarchical model that use Cisco IOS to provide foundational network technologies needed to provide a highly available, application-aware network with flexible access.
LAN Design Considerations
• Distribution layer —The distribution layer uses a combination of Layer-2 and Layer-3 switching to provide for the appropriate balance of policy and access controls, availability, and flexibility in subnet allocation and VLAN usage.
Routing Protocol Selection Criteria
Routing protocols are essential for any network, because they allow for the routing of information between buildings and sites. Selecting the right routing protocol can vary based on the end-to-end network infrastructure. The service fabric routers and switches support many different routing protocols that will work medium enterprise environments. Network architects must consider all the following critical design factors when selecting the right routing protocol to be implemented throughout the internal network:
• Rapid convergence —Link state versus DUAL recomputation and synchronization. Network reconvergence also varies based on network design, configuration, and a multitude of other factors which are beyond the routing protocol.
High Availability Design Considerations
To ensure business continuity and prevent catastrophic network failure during unplanned network outage, it is important to identify network fault domains and define rapid recovery plans to minimize the application impact during minor and major network outages.
The service fabric design must ensure network survivability by following three major resiliency methods pertaining to most types of failures. Depending on the network system tier, role, and network service type the appropriate resiliency option should be deployed:
Access Layer Design Considerations
The access layer represents the entry into the network, consisting of wired and wireless access from the client to the network. The switch that the client connects to will ultimately connect up to the network distribution, and the layer of communication used here must be considered in any design. Traditional Layer 2 connectivity is prevalent in most networks today; however, it comes at some cost in administration, configuration, and timely resiliency. The emerging method of connectivity is a Layer 3 connection, commonly referred to as routed-access .
Performing the routing function in the access-layer simplifies configuration, optimizes distribution performances, and allows for the use of well known end-to-end troubleshooting tools. Implementing a Layer 3 access-layer in lieu of the traditional Layer 2 access replaces the required Layer 2 trunks with a single point-to-point Layer 3 link. Pushing Layer 3 function one tier down on Layer 3 access switches changes traditional multilayer network topology and the forwarding path. The implementing of a Layer 3 access does not require any physical or logical link reconfiguration or changes.
LAN Service Fabric Foundational Services
The service fabric uses essential foundational services to efficiently disseminate information that are used by multiple clients, as well as identify and prioritize different applications traffic based on their requirements. Designing the foundational services in a manner consistent with the needs of the medium enterprise is paramount. Some of the key foundational services discussed include the following:
WAN Design Considerations
In order for sites to communicate with one another and/or to communicate outside the medium enterprise network, the network traffic must traverse over a WAN. WAN transport differs greatly from LAN transport due to the variables such as the type of connection used, the speed of the connection, and the distance of the connection. The service fabric design model covers the following WAN transport design considerations:
WAN Service Fabric Foundational Services
Similar to the LAN, the WAN must deploy essential foundational services to ensure the proper transport and prioritization of medium enterprise services, the WAN Service Fabric Foundation Services considered are as follows: